The first century BC was a time of immense menin Rome. Great, but damaging. Guys such as Sulla, Marius, Cicero, Cato, Crassus, Pompey and Caesar, whose military or political careers would be studied for centuries tocome. Individually, each of these men had the skillsand abilities to generate greatnes and prosperity to Rome. However, when put in conflict with each other, they would lead to the destruction of the Republic which had lasted for nearly 450 years. This is the story of the Great Roman CivilWar.By that target, you probably have watched everythingon your streaming services, are suffered and in need of more content. The patron of this video NordVPN has youcovered! NordVPN is not only a VPN service that protectsyour communications and personal data, but its 5500 super-fast servers are contained in 60 countries will allow you to change your IP to avoid regional limiteds. 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In order to fully understand how the GreatRoman Civil War, also known as Caesars Civil War, began, we need to grasp the culturaland historical background.Since the mid-2nd century BC the Roman Republichad started fracturing with the assassination of the Gracchi brethren, Tiberius and Gaius, two progressive and favourite legislators. Their deaths accentuated the growing socialdivide between the upper and lower classes in Rome, and the instability carried on intothe following decades with riots in Sicily, the Social war with Italian allies, and ultimatelythe civil crusades of Sulla and Marius at the start of the first century BC.Those two indicated the political gap betweenthose who conceived superpower came from the plebs, the Populares like Marius, and those who believedpower came from the Senate, the Optimates[ optimits ], such as Sulla. Moreover, their battle had uncovered shortcomings in theRoman Republican system, proving that political and military power could be easily subverted. Though after his succes Sulla had, as Dictator, interposed legislation to try and stop anyone following in his strides, the precedenthad already been determined; a general could march on Rome, take it by force, and foist hisown will on the Republic. If enough soldiers were personally loyal toan individual general, the Senators could do little to curtail that man’s power. Furthermore, the Republics constitution, with its innumerable checks and balances, was proving to be one of the crucial factors inits death: strong politicians were able to paralyze the government by blockingthe legislation they disagreed with. Often it took either a totalitarianism or martiallaw to break the stalemate. It was in this political environment thatthe first triumvirate had emerged. Consisting of Crassus, Pompey and Caesar thetriumvirate prescribed political life for a majority of the members of the era.Crassus was an established politician andthe richest somebody in Rome, bankrolling the triumvirate and compensating bribes as needed. Pompey was Romes most accomplished general. Following the Social War, he crusaded alongsideSulla in his Civil War and later guided expeditions in Sicily, Africa, Pontus and Syria. This bring him large amounts of wealth, innumerable political collaborators, and the loyalty of thousands of veterans.Caesar, at 41 years old, was the youngestand least established of the 3. He had harboured the positions of quaestor andaedile[ eedayyl ], and had shown promise as a praetor in Spain. However, Caesar was pontifex maximus, thehighest religious official in Rome. Through this office, Caesar had the powerto pass divine laws and to postpone ballots due to signs from the gods. Additionally as one of the leaders of thePopulares, Caesar had already established himself as a populist, and had significantclout with the masses.By 59 BC the Triumvirate was established. Caesar was already indebted to Crassus, andhis alliance with Pompey was solidified by marrying his daughter Julia to Pompey. Though never an official coalition, thesethree mortals ensure almost every aspect of the Republic. Crassus forced the Senate and gentry, the Optimates, with bribes. Pompey’s armed standing effectively gavehim ascendancy of the veterans and the behavior they would vote. And Caesar could control the masses. With the support of Pompey and Crassus, Caesarwas elected to the consulship in 59 BC, and immediately transferred moor reform legislationto provide land to Pompey’s ex-servicemen, and ratified Pompeys Eastern conquests. Initially, following Caesars consulship, the Senate manufactured him an overseer of lumbers and grasslands in Italy rather than a minister ofa province as was the norm for an ex-consul. However, the Triumvirate was able to overturnthis decision: Caesar was given the governorship of Illyria, Cisalpine Gaul and TransalpineGaul, along with four brigades, for the extent of five years as opposed to the usual one. Though it is clear that the Triumvirate didabuse their power to achieve their own represents, it did advantage Rome in some ways, pushingthrough much-needed principles, such as the settle of ex-servicemen, without peril of the Senate creatinga stalemate.In this same year, Clodius Pulcher becameTribune of the Plebs. Clodius had given up his patrician statusto hold the position, and used it to push a number of populist reforms with the supportof the Triumvirate, such as the establishment of a particle aid. Clodius had also learned how effective violencecould be in politics and had developed in partnership drilled gangs who are capable of bother and assaultany politicians “whos got” in his channel, and he was even able to force the influential Cicerointo exile. After only 1 year of Clodius and his gangsruling the street of Rome, it became clear that the Triumvirate would not be able tocontrol him.Clodius had even gone so far as to attemptto assassinate Pompey when the latter suggested withdrawing Cicero from exile. In response, Pompey tolerated another tribune, Milo, an Optimate, to raise his own syndicates to counter Clodius. No weapons were meant to be allowed in Rome, but the two sides privately armed themselves with knives and swords, hiring thugs and evengladiators. For the next few years, the two tribunes andtheir syndicates combated regularly in wall street. Rome was in chaos. The Triumvirate was reaffirmed in 56 BC, afterwhich Pompey and Crassus lengthened Caesars term as bos by another 5 years, whileCaesar sent ex-servicemen from Gaul back to Rome to ensure that Pompey and Crassus would beelected consuls for the year 55 -5 4BC. Nonetheless, soon after, the Triumvirate beganto fracture. In 54 BC Julia died in childbirth, severingthe personal connection between the two triumvirs.In 53 BC Crassus launched on his disastrousParthian campaign, subsequently dying at the Battle of Carrhae. Moreover, the subsequent year, Clodius waskilled by Milo. With Clodius dead and the Triumvirate broke, Pompey and Caesar were left as the two most powerful followers in Rome. Chaos in the city exclusively increased, as duringClodius funeral, his supporters started a rampage. His body was taken to the Senate house tobe burnt on a pyre, and the Senate building itself was destroyed. In desperation, the Senate turned to Pompey. In 52 BC Pompey was specified sole Consul and givenextraordinary dominances. Soldiers were paraded into the capital, trialsheld under forearmed sentry, and executings made. This was ruthless but effective, and orderwas regenerated. The Senate gifted Pompey with an extendedterm of governance of Hispania, as well as strengths similar to those that Caesar held inGaul.Pompey decided to leave the governance ofhis provinces to lieutenants. His quelling of the riotings had bought him theadoration of the Senate and Optimates, and he was not willing to give up such power andinfluence by leaving Rome. The Senate had their own ambitions. With Clodius dead, Caesar was left as theleader of the Populares. Cato and other Senators were becoming increasinglyworried that Caesar might choose to employ his esteem and march on Rome. He was, in the Senates thoughts, a threat tothe Republic. The more this was said, the more Pompey agreed. When the Triumvirate was first organized, Pompeyhad little to fear from Caesar. However, Caesar’s Gallic Wars stood himto increase asset, popularity with the masses, and a core of loyal, battle-hardenedveterans. Caesar had grown his army to around 10 Legions, nearly 50,000 humanities, more than double what he had originally been assigned.Moreover, a majority of the members of these forces hadbeen raised by Caesar personally, led by Caesar in engagement, and thus would undoubtedly be loyalto him. It had made Sulla exclusively six brigades to marchon Rome, and there was every chance that Caesar could do the same. As a ensue, the Senate, and in particularthe prominent Cato the Younger, commence mobilizing an anti-Caesar alliance in the Senate, mainlyconsisting of Optimates. With Pompey and Caesar once positionedto confront each other as the two most powerful humankinds in Rome, the Senate turned to Pompey tolead the Optimates and remove Caesar as security threats. The question that the Senate faced was thatCaesar was simply too strong. His army was too large to be confronted head-on, and his popularity was too great for him to be defeated in an election. At this time in 52 BC Caesar was still governorof Gaul, and had applied to run for the bureau of consul in absentia for its first year 48 BC, histerm as superintendent ending in 49 BC. With 52 BC being such a tumultuous time with riotsin Rome, Caesars application had been allowed with little speculation, but now presented a problem.Holding the agency of governor or consul gaveCaesar law exemption. If he ran in absentia for the consulship, he would certainly win due to his vast popularity, and his legal immunity would continue. Moreover, he would be able to use this termas consul to push legislation to protect himself. It was undeniable that Caesar had committedcrimes as consul, including provoke political violence against a fellow consul, as wellas crimes as a head by instigate struggles in Gaul and Britain that were not authorizedby the Senate. The Senate could not defeat Caesar militarily, nor could they overcome him in the voting kiosks. A mixture was needed. Cato had already made it clear that givenan opportunity, he would make Caesar on trial himself. All that was needed was for Caesar to be aprivate citizen. As a cause, through some cunning, more ultimatelycontrived, learns of the existing legislation, the Senate insisted that Caesars governorship wouldend in 52 BC and not 50 BC, and that he should resign require of his army.Caesar refused. He understood that as soon as he lost hislegal immunity the Senate would have him put on trial. He too knew that his governorship was, infact, law, and that he had the right to continue his governorship in authority untilthe previously concurred appointment at the end of 49BC. The 52 BC deadline legislated without publish, andCaesars command continued. For the next two years, the Pompeiian factionin the Senate, ability by Cato, increasingly asked Caesars acceptance, whilst theCaesarean faction, pate by Curio and Mark Antony, both Plebeian Tribunes, continuallyblocked and killed such legislation.In December 50 BC, Pompey himself offered toresign his word if Caesar would first. The Caesareans vehemently opposed this, insistingthat Pompey be first to resign. Neither area was willing to be exposed andundefended. That same month, Caesar marched with one Legionto Ravenna, and wrote a letter to the Senate attempting to negotiate, again insisting thatif Pompey resigned his dominate firstly, so would he. Whether Caesar paraded his Legion to Ravennasimply to winter there, or if he made it as an actual threat, is not clear. However, rumours spread that Caesar, in fact, had 4 Brigades with him , not just one.To the Senate, it sounded Caesar was attemptingto threaten and coercion them. In response, they again ordered him to stepdown immediately, and authorised Pompey to start amassing brigades to defend Rome. Caesar, once again, attempted to negotiate. He offered to resign his governorship of TransalpineGaul, Cisalpine Gaul and the majority of his Force, but requested to keep governorshipof Illyricum, together with two Forces, until the original deadline – the end of 49 BC – andthat he be allowed to run for consul for 48 BC, hoping to extend his legal immunity. However, this was still a tolerable dealfor the Senate, and it would achieve their aim of severely limiting Caesars powerand affect. Cicero played as a arbiter for the transaction andnegotiated Caesar down to simply one Legion and two states. Pompey was willing to accept. However, key Optimate Senators, includingCato and the consul Lentulus, refused the deal.While Pompey was not as ardently devoted tothe Senate, the hard-line Optimates like Cato and Lentulus detested the idea that the Senatemight be forced to negotiate. On the 7th of January, the Senate voted againto immediately piece Caesar of all his authorities and hordes. Once again, Caesars Tribunes in the Senate, Curio and Antony, vetoed the legislative measures. The Senate had expected so much better and passedthe Senatus Consultum Ultimum, the Final Act, an un-vetoable act that suspended all lawsand handed all capabilities to the Consuls, effectively testifying a national emergency, and they declaredCaesar an enemy of the state. The Consuls for the year, Lentulus and Marcellus, both hard-line Optimates, immediately transferred all their powers to Pompey, effectively givingPompey full command of the Roman Republic. That same darknes, Caesars allies in Romefled to Ravenna to join him.The stage was now set. After years of struggled negotiations, a completeimpasse had been reached. The separation between the two parties, thePopulares and Optimates, was the same division that had led to the deaths of the Gracchi, and the wars of Sulla and Marius. The Populares chiefly consisted of youngermen from less built genealogies, such as Mark Anthony, Trebonius and Curio, or lessermembers of royal households, such as Decimus Brutus. The Pompeiian Optimates, on the other hand, were mainly aristocrats of noble class, including Pompey’s two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus, Ahenobarbus, Metellus Scipio, a offspring of the notorious Scipio Africanus, Cato the Younger, and Cicero. The societal gap between these two groups, which had first be manifested virtually 100 years ago with the deaths of the Gracchi, was about to plunge the Republic into chaos once again. On the 10 th of January 49 BC, Caesar left Ravennawith the 13 th Legion and his allies from Rome.They halted at a small river that stigmatized theborder of the provinces and territories of Italy; the Rubicon. It was forbidden for any general to crossthis boundary with limbs or an legion; to do so would be a clear declaration of fighting. Caesar devoted a long time weighing his options. Caesars own family had been persecutedand hunted in the aftermath of Sullas Civil War, he knew well how destructive such warswere. Nonetheless, he also knew that if he disbandedhis army, he would be likely exiled or executed.After almost a days deliberation, Caesarmade his option. Alea iacta est – the die is shed. The Great Roman Civil War had begun. 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